« Back to Research Deepdives

Does the Effect of Whey Protein on Blood Glucose Levels Depend on Insulin?

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


1. Tabák AG, Jokela M, Akbaraly TN, Brunner EJ, Kivimäki M, Witte DR. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study. The Lancet. 2009 Jun;373(9682):2215–21.
2. Vistisen D, Witte DR, Tabák AG, Herder C, Brunner EJ, Kivimäki M, et al. Patterns of Obesity Development before the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes: The Whitehall II Cohort Study. PLoS Medicine. 2014 Feb 11;11(2):e1001602.
3. Gerich JE. Control of glycaemia. Baillière’s Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1993 Jul;7(3):551–86.
4. Gerich JE. Physiology of glucose homeostasis. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2000 Dec;2(6):345–50.
5. DeFronzo RA. Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. Drugs. 1999;58(Supplement 1):29–30.
6. Kubota S, Liu Y, Iizuka K, Kuwata H, Seino Y, Yabe D. A Review of Recent Findings on Meal Sequence: An Attractive Dietary Approach to Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2020 Aug 19;12(9):2502.
7. Nauck MA, Meier JJ. Incretin hormones: Their role in health and disease. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2018 Feb;20:5–21.
8. Bartholomé R, Salden B, Vrolijk MF, Troost FJ, Masclee A, Bast A, et al. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption. PLOS ONE. 2015 Sep 9;10(9):e0136618.
9. Gasbjerg LS, Helsted MM, Hartmann B, Jensen MH, Gabe MBN, Sparre-Ulrich AH, et al. Separate and Combined Glucometabolic Effects of Endogenous Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide and Glucagon-like Peptide 1 in Healthy Individuals. Diabetes. 2019 May 1;68(5):906–17.
10. Marathe CS, Rayner CK, Jones KL, Horowitz M. Relationships Between Gastric Emptying, Postprandial Glycemia, and Incretin Hormones. Diabetes Care. 2013 May 1;36(5):1396–405.
11. Deane AM, Nguyen NQ, Stevens JE, Fraser RJL, Holloway RH, Besanko LK, et al. Endogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Slows Gastric Emptying in Healthy Subjects, Attenuating Postprandial Glycemia. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010 Jan;95(1):215–21.
12. Bae JH, Kim LK, Min SH, Ahn CH, Cho YM. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2018 Sep;9(5):1110–8.
13. Lean MEJ, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, Brosnahan N, Thom G, Mccombie L, et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes ( DiRECT ): an open-label , cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet. 2018;391(10120):541–51.