« Back to Research Deepdives

Ultra-Processed Foods, Calorie Intake, and Weight Gain

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


  1. Rolls B. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Appetite. 2008;51(2):395.
  2. Avena N, Rada P, Hoebel B. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2008;32(1):20-39.
  3. Milton K. Hunter-gatherer diets—a different perspective. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000;71(3):665-667.
  4. Monteiro C, Cannon G, Moubarac J, Levy R, Louzada M, Jaime P. The UN Decade of Nutrition, the NOVA food classification and the trouble with ultra-processing. Public Health Nutrition. 2017;21(1):5-17.
  5. Monteiro C, Moubarac J, Levy R, Canella D, Louzada M, Cannon G. Household availability of ultra-processed foods and obesity in nineteen European countries. Public Health Nutrition. 2017;21(1):18-26.
  6. Bell E, Roe L, Rolls B. Sensory-specific satiety is affected more by volume than by energy content of a liquid food. Physiology & Behavior. 2003;78(4-5):593-600.
  7. Stinson E, Piaggi P, Ibrahim M, Venti C, Krakoff J, Votruba S. High Fat and Sugar Consumption During Ad Libitum Intake Predicts Weight Gain. Obesity. 2018;26(4):689-695.
  8. Martínez Steele E, Popkin B, Swinburn B, Monteiro C. The share of ultra-processed foods and the overall nutritional quality of diets in the US: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Population Health Metrics. 2017;15(1).
  9. Gibney M, Forde C, Mullally D, Gibney E. Ultra-processed foods in human health: a critical appraisal. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;:ajcn160440.