« Back to Research Deepdives

Can Protein Restriction, Without Calorie Restriction, Improve Metabolic Health?

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


  1. Rattan SIS. Hormesis in aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2008 Jan;7(1):63–78.
  2. Speakman JR, Mitchell SE, Mazidi M. Calories or protein? The effect of dietary restriction on lifespan in rodents is explained by calories alone. Exp Gerontol. 2016 Dec;86:28–38.
  3. Solon-Biet SM, Mitchell SJ, Coogan SCP, Cogger VC, Gokarn R, McMahon AC, et al. Dietary Protein to Carbohydrate Ratio and Caloric Restriction: Comparing Metabolic Outcomes in Mice. Cell Rep. 2015 Jun;11(10):1529–34.
  4. Willcox BJ, Willcox DC, Todoriki H., Fujiyoshi A, Yano K, He Q, et al. Caloric Restriction, the Traditional Okinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging: The Diet of the World’s Longest-Lived People and Its Potential Impact on Morbidity and Life Span. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Oct 1;1114(1):434–55.
  5. Le Couteur DG, Solon-Biet S, Wahl D, Cogger VC, Willcox BJ, Willcox DC, et al. New Horizons: Dietary protein, ageing and the Okinawan ratio. Age Ageing. 2016 Jul;45(4):443–7.
  6. Elia M, Livesey G. Energy expenditure and fuel selection in biological systems: the theory and practice of calculations based on indirect calorimetry and tracer methods. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1992;70:68–131.
  7. Mifflin MD, St Jeor ST, Hill LA, Scott BJ, Daugherty SA, Koh YO. A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Feb 1;51(2):241–7.
  8. Schoeller DA, Buchholz AC. Energetics of obesity and weight control: Does diet composition matter? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(5 SUPPL.):24–8.
  9. Hall KD, Guo J. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(7):1718–27.
  10. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Faulkner DA, Nguyen T, Kemp T, Marchie A, et al. Assessment of the longer-term effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia1–3. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):582–91.
  11. Nicoll R, Henein M. Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Mar 7;19(3):751.
  12. Tam CS, Xie W, Johnson WD, Cefalu WT, Redman LM, Ravussin E. Defining Insulin Resistance From Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamps. Diabetes Care. 2012 Jul 1;35(7):1605–10.
  13. FAO Expert Consultation. Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. Rome; 2013.
  14. Levine ME, Suarez JA, Brandhorst S, Balasubramanian P, Cheng CW, Madia F, et al. Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population. Cell Metab. 2014 Mar;19(3):407–17.
  15. Willet WC. Nutritional epidemiology. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.