« Back to Research Deepdives

Are Plant Omega-3’s Sufficient?

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


  1. Baker E, Miles E, Burdge G, Yaqoob P, Calder P. Metabolism and functional effects of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Progress in Lipid Research. 2016;64:30-56.
  2. Arterburn L, Hall E, Oken H. Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n−3 fatty acids in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;83(6):1467S-1476S.
  3. Bradbury J. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain. Nutrients. 2011;3(5):529-554.
  4. Crawford M, Bloom M, Broadhurst C, Schmidt W, Cunnane S, Galli C et al. Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Lipids. 1999;34(S1):S39-S47.
  5. Brenna J, Carlson S. Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: Evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development. Journal of Human Evolution. 2014;77:99-106.
  6. Emken E, Adlof R, Duval S, Nelson G. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on desaturation and uptake in vivo of isotope-labeled oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids by male subjects. Lipids. 1999;34(8):785-791.
  7. Burdge G, Finnegan Y, Minihane A, Williams C, Wootton S. Effect of altered dietaryn-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]α-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards β-oxidation in older men. British Journal of Nutrition. 2003;90(2):311-321.
  8. Brenna J, Salem N, Sinclair A, Cunnane S. α-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2009;80(2-3):85-91.
  9. Fokkema M, Brouwer D, Hasperhoven M, Martini I, Muskiet F. Short-term supplementation of low-dose γ -linolenic acid (GLA), α -linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP ω 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA). 2000;63(5):287-292.
  10. Gabbs M, Zahradka P, Taylor C, Aukema H. Time Course and Sex Effects of α-Linolenic Acid-Rich and DHA-Rich Supplements on Human Plasma Oxylipins: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial. The Journal of Nutrition. 2020;151(3):513-522.
  11. Caughey G, Mantzioris E, Gibson R, Cleland L, James M. The effect on human tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta production of diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996;63(1):116-122.
  12. Wallace F, Miles E, Calder P. Comparison of the effects of linseed oil and different doses of fish oil on mononuclear cell function in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Nutrition. 2003;89(5):679-689.