« Back to Research Deepdives

Isoflavones, Phytoestrogens, and Prostate Cancer Risk

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


1. Sapienza C, Issa JP. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics. Annu Rev Nutr. 2016 Jul 17;36(1):665–81.
2. Wiseman MJ. Nutrition and cancer: prevention and survival. British Journal of Nutrition. 2019 Sep 14;122(5):481–7.
3. Rawla P. Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer. World J Oncol. 2019;10(2):63–89.
4. Perez‐Cornago A, Appleby PN, Boeing H, Gil L, Kyrø C, Ricceri F, et al. Circulating isoflavone and lignan concentrations and prostate cancer risk: a meta‐analysis of individual participant data from seven prospective studies including 2,828 cases and 5,593 controls. Int J Cancer. 2018 Dec 29;143(11):2677–86.
5. Yan L, Spitznagel EL. Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr;89(4):1155–63.
6. Shaneyfelt T, Husein R, Bubley G, Mantzoros CS. Hormonal Predictors of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2000 Feb 14;18(4):847–847.
7. Sivoňová M, Kaplán P, Tatarková Z, Lichardusová L, Dušenka R, Jurečeková J. Androgen receptor and soy isoflavones in prostate cancer (Review). Mol Clin Oncol. 2018 Dec 11;
8. Weihua Z, Lathe R, Warner M, Gustafsson J Åke. An endocrine pathway in the prostate, ERβ, AR, 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and CYP7B1, regulates prostate growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13589–94.
9. Imamov O, Morani A, Shim GJ, Omoto Y, Thulin-Andersson C, Warner M, et al. Estrogen receptor β regulates epithelial cellular differentiation in the mouse ventral prostate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2004 Jun 22;101(25):9375–80.
10. Thellenberg-Karlsson C, Lindström S, Malmer B, Wiklund F, Augustsson-Bälter K, Adami HO, et al. Estrogen Receptor β Polymorphism Is Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk. Clinical Cancer Research. 2006 Mar 15;12(6):1936–41.
11. Hedelin M, Bälter KA, Chang ET, Bellocco R, Klint Å, Johansson JE, et al. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens, estrogen receptor-beta polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate. 2006 Oct 1;66(14):1512–20.
12. Uehara M. Isoflavone metabolism and bone-sparing effects of daidzein-metabolites. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2013;52(3):193–201.
13. Vatanparast H, Chilibeck PD. Does the Effect of Soy Phytoestrogens on Bone in Postmenopausal Women Depend on the Equol-Producing Phenotype? Nutr Rev. 2007 Jun 1;65(6):294–9.
14. Tanaka M, Fujimoto K, Chihara Y, Torimoto K, Yoneda T, Tanaka N, et al. Isoflavone supplements stimulated the production of serum equol and decreased the serum dihydrotestosterone levels in healthy male volunteers. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009 Sep 14;12(3):247–52.
15. van Die MD, Bone KM, Williams SG, Pirotta M V. Soy and soy isoflavones in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. BJU Int. 2014 May 23;113(5b).
16. Huebner J, Marienfeld S, Abbenhardt C, Ulrich C, Muenstedt K, Micke O, et al. Counseling patients on cancer diets: a review of the literature and recommendations for clinical practice. Anticancer Res. 2014 Jan;34(1):39–48.
17. Maskarinec G, Gotay CC, Tatsumura Y, Shumay DM, Kakai H. Perceived Cancer Causes. Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapy. Cancer Pract. 2001 Jul;9(4):183–90.
18. Molassiotis A, Fernadez-Ortega P, Pud D, Ozden G, Scott JA, Panteli V, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients: a European survey. Annals of Oncology. 2005 Apr;16(4):655–63.