« Back to Research Deepdives

The Impact of Income on Fast Food Consumption

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


  1. Marmot M. Health equity in England: the Marmot review 10 years on. BMJ. 2020;:m693.
  2. GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 2019;393(10184):1958-1972.
  3. Public Health England. Density of fast food outlets. PointX Data; 2016 p. 1-2.
  4. Fraser L, Edwards K, Cade J, Clarke P. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010;7:2290-2308.
  5. Thornton L, Lamb K, White S. The use and misuse of ratio and proportion exposure measures in food environment research. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2020;17(1).
  6. Caraher M, Lloyd S, Madelin T. The school food shed: a report on schools and fast food outlets in Tower Hamlets. British Food Journal. 2014;116(3):472-493.
  7. van Rongen S, Poelman M, Thornton L, Abbott G, Lu M, Kamphuis C et al. Neighbourhood fast food exposure and consumption: the mediating role of neighbourhood social norms. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2020;17(1).
  8. Thorndike A, Sonnenberg L, Riis J, Barraclough S, Levy D. A 2-Phase Labeling and Choice Architecture Intervention to Improve Healthy Food and Beverage Choices. American Journal of Public Health. 2012;102(3):527-533.
  9. Whybrow S, Craig L, Macdiarmid J. Dietary patterns of households in Scotland: Differences by level of deprivation and associations with dietary goals. Nutrition and Health. 2017;24(1):29-35.