« Back to Research Deepdives

Does Eating Breakfast Lower Risk in “Night Owls”?

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


1. Roenneberg T, Wirz-Justice A, Merrow M. Life between clocks: Daily temporal patterns of human chronotypes. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 2003;18(1):80–90.
2. Roenneberg, Pilz, Zerbini, Winnebeck. Chronotype and Social Jetlag: A (Self-) Critical Review. Biology. 2019;8(3):54.
3. Kalmbach DA, Schneider LD, Cheung J, Bertrand SJ, Kariharan T, Pack AI, et al. Genetic Basis of Chronotype in Humans: Insights From Three Landmark GWAS. Sleep. 2017;40(2).
4. Roenneberg T, Daan S, Merrow M. The Art of Entrainment Till. Journal of biological rhythms. 2003;18(3):183–94.
5. Aljuraiban GS, Chan Q, Oude Griep LM, Brown IJ, Daviglus ML, Stamler J, et al. The Impact of Eating Frequency and Time of Intake on Nutrient Quality and Body Mass Index: The INTERMAP Study, a Population-Based Study. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2015;115(4):528-536.e1.
6. Kahleova H, Lloren JI, Mashchak A, Hill M, Fraser GE. Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2. The Journal of Nutrition. 2017;(8):jn244749.
7. Baron KG, Reid KJ, Horn L van, Zee PC. Contribution of evening macronutrient intake to total caloric intake and body mass index. Appetite. 2013;60(1):246–51.
8. Levitsky DA, Pacanowski CR. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiology and Behavior. 2013;119:9–16.
9. Sievert K, Hussain SM, Page MJ, Wang Y, Hughes HJ, Malek M, et al. Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019;364:15–7.
10. Flanagan A, Bechtold DA, Pot GK, Johnston JD. Chrono-nutrition: From molecular and neuronal mechanisms to human epidemiology and timed feeding patterns. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2021;157(1):53–72.
11. Willet WC. Nutritional epidemiology. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.
12. Kantermann T, Sung H, Burgess HJ. Comparing the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to the Dim Light Melatonin Onset. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 2015 Oct 4;30(5):449–53.
13. Reed GW, Hill JO. Measuring the thermic effect of food. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996;63(2):164–9.
14. Bass J. Circadian topology of metabolism. Nature. 2012;491(7424):348–56.
15. Froy O. Metabolism and circadian rhythms – Implications for obesity. Endocrine Reviews. 2010;31(1):1–24.
16. Lopez-minguez J, Dashti HS, Madrid-valero JJ, Madrid JA, Saxena R, Scheer FAJL, et al. Heritability of the timing of food intake. Clinical Nutrition. 2019;38:767–73.
17. Walker RJ, Christopher AN. Time-of-day preference mediates the relationship between personality and breakfast attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016;91:138–43
18. Reeves S, Halsey LG, McMeel Y, Huber JW. Breakfast habits, beliefs and measures of health and wellbeing in a nationally representative UK sample. Appetite. 2013;60(1):51–7.
19. Maukonen M, Kanerva N, Partonen T, Kronholm E, Wennman H, Männistö S. The associations between chronotype , a healthy diet and obesity. Chronobiology International 2016;33(8):972-81.
20. Kanerva N, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Ovaskainen ML, Kaartinen NE, Konttinen H, et al. Tendency toward eveningness is associated with unhealthy dietary habits. Chronobiology International. 2012;29(7):920–7.
21. Chaix A, Zarrinpar A, Miu P, Panda S. Time-restricted feeding is a preventative and therapeutic intervention against diverse nutritional challenges. Cell Metabolism. 2014;20(6):991–1005.
22. Nedeltcheva A v, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Kasza K, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009;89(1):126–33.
23. McHill AW, Czeisler CA, Phillips AJK, Keating L, Barger LK, Garaulet M, et al. Caloric and macronutrient intake differ with circadian phase and between lean and overweight young adults. Nutrients. 2019;11(3).
24. McHill AW, Phillips AJK, Czeisler CA, Keating L, Yee K, Barger LK, et al. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;106(5):1213–9.
25. Baron KG, Reid KJ, Wolfe LF, Attarian H, Zee PC. Phase Relationship between DLMO and Sleep Onset and the Risk of Metabolic Disease among Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Adults. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 2018;33(1):76–83.
26. Korman M, Tkachev V, Reis C, Komada Y, Kitamura S, Gubin D, et al. COVID-19-mandated social restrictions unveil the impact of social time pressure on sleep and body clock. Scientific Reports. 2020 Dec 17;10(1):22225.
27. Galindo Muñoz JS, Gómez Gallego M, Díaz Soler I, Barberá Ortega MC, Martínez Cáceres CM, Hernández Morante JJ. Effect of a chronotype-adjusted diet on weight loss effectiveness: A randomized clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2020 Apr;39(4):1041–8.