« Back to Research Deepdives

Chronotype, Breakfast Skipping & Type-2 Diabetes Risk

This content is restricted to members.

To view our premium content, sign up for a membership:


Register New Account

Choose your membership level

Choose Your Payment Method

‹ Back to Research Deepdives


  1. Mekary R, Giovannucci E, Willett W, van Dam R, Hu F. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in men: breakfast omission, eating frequency, and snacking. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012;95(5):1182-1189.
  2. Ballon A, Neuenschwander M, Schlesinger S. Breakfast Skipping Is Associated with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. The Journal of Nutrition. 2018;149(1):106-113.
  3. Levitsky D, Pacanowski C. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiology & Behavior. 2013;119:9-16.
  4. Sievert K, Hussain S, Page M, Wang Y, Hughes H, Malek M et al. Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019;:l42.
  5. Betts J, Richardson J, Chowdhury E, Holman G, Tsintzas K, Thompson D. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014;100(2):539-547.
  6. Chowdhury E, Richardson J, Holman G, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts J. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in obese adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2016;103(3):747-756.
  7. Chowdhury E, Richardson J, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts J. Postprandial Metabolism and Appetite Do Not Differ between Lean Adults that Eat Breakfast or Morning Fast for 6 Weeks. The Journal of Nutrition. 2018;148(1):13-21.
  8. Chowdhury E, Richardson J, Gonzalez J, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts J. Six Weeks of Morning Fasting Causes Little Adaptation of Metabolic or Appetite Responses to Feeding in Adults with Obesity. Obesity. 2019;.
  9. Reeves S, Halsey L, McMeel Y, Huber J. Breakfast habits, beliefs and measures of health and wellbeing in a nationally representative UK sample. Appetite. 2013;60:51-57.
  10. Walker R, Christopher A. Time-of-day preference mediates the relationship between personality and breakfast attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016;91:138-143.
  11. Kanerva N, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Ovaskainen M, Kaartinen N, Konttinen H et al. Tendency Toward Eveningness Is Associated With Unhealthy Dietary Habits. Chronobiology International. 2012;29(7):920-927.
  12. Jovanovic A, Leverton E, Solanky B, Ravikumar B, Snaar J, Morris P et al. The second-meal phenomenon is associated with enhanced muscle glycogen storage in humans. Clinical Science. 2009;117(3):119-127.
  13. Lee S, Tura A, Mari A, Ko S, Kwon H, Song K et al. Potentiation of the early-phase insulin response by a prior meal contributes to the second-meal phenomenon in type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;301(5):E984-E990.
  14. Jakubowicz D, Wainstein J, Ahren B, Landau Z, Bar-Dayan Y, Froy O. Fasting Until Noon Triggers Increased Postprandial Hyperglycemia and Impaired Insulin Response After Lunch and Dinner in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(10):1820-1826.
  15. Jovanovic A, Gerrard J, Taylor R. The Second-Meal Phenomenon in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1199-1201.
  16. Wehrens S, Christou S, Isherwood C, Middleton B, Gibbs M, Archer S et al. Meal Timing Regulates the Human Circadian System. Current Biology. 2017;27(12):1768-1775.e3.
  17. Parsons M, Moffitt T, Gregory A, Goldman-Mellor S, Nolan P, Poulton R et al. Social jetlag, obesity and metabolic disorder: investigation in a cohort study. International Journal of Obesity. 2014;39(5):842-848.
  18. Wittmann M, Dinich J, Merrow M, Roenneberg T. Social Jetlag: Misalignment of Biological and Social Time. Chronobiology International. 2006;23(1-2):497-509.