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Food Allergy, Food Intolerance, and Common Claims

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  1. Cianferoni A, Spergel JM. Food Allergy: Review, Classification and Diagnosis. Allergology International. 2009;58(4):457–66.
  2. Verrill L, Bruns R, Luccioli S. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in U.S. adults: 2001, 2006, and 2010. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015 Nov 1;36(6):458–67.
  3. Valenta R, Hochwallner H, Linhart B, Pahr S. Food Allergies: The Basics. Gastroenterology. 2015 May;148(6):1120-1131.e4.
  4. Elghoudi A, Narchi H. Food allergy in children—the current status and the way forward. World J Clin Pediatr. 2022 May 9;11(3):253–69.
  5. Gargano D, Appanna R, Santonicola A, de Bartolomeis F, Stellato C, Cianferoni A, et al. Food Allergy and Intolerance: A Narrative Review on Nutritional Concerns. Nutrients. 2021 May 13;13(5):1638.
  6. McWilliam V, Koplin J, Lodge C, Tang M, Dharmage S, Allen K. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015 Sep 2;15(9):54.
  7. Lomer MCE. Review article: the aetiology, diagnosis, mechanisms and clinical evidence for food intolerance. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Feb;41(3):262–75.
  8. Mullin GE, Swift KM, Lipski L, Turnbull LK, Rampertab SD. Testing for Food Reactions. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2010 Apr 22;25(2):192–8.
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  12. Tang MLK, Martino DJ. Oral immunotherapy and tolerance induction in childhood. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2013 Sep;24(6):512–20.
  13. Molina-Infante J, Carroccio A. Suspected Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity Confirmed in Few Patients After Gluten Challenge in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2017 Mar;15(3):339–48.
  14. Skodje GI, Sarna VK, Minelle IH, Rolfsen KL, Muir JG, Gibson PR, et al. Fructan, Rather Than Gluten, Induces Symptoms in Patients With Self-Reported Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity. Gastroenterology. 2018 Feb;154(3):529-539.e2.
  15. Biesiekierski JR, Peters SL, Newnham ED, Rosella O, Muir JG, Gibson PR. No Effects of Gluten in Patients With Self-Reported Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity After Dietary Reduction of Fermentable, Poorly Absorbed, Short-Chain Carbohydrates. Gastroenterology. 2013 Aug;145(2):320-328.e3.
  16. Biesiekierski JR, Newnham ED, Irving PM, Barrett JS, Haines M, Doecke JD, et al. Gluten Causes Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Subjects Without Celiac Disease: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011 Mar;106(3):508–14.
  17. Uhde M, Ajamian M, Caio G, de Giorgio R, Indart A, Green PH, et al. Intestinal cell damage and systemic immune activation in individuals reporting sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease. Gut. 2016 Dec;65(12):1930–7.
  18. Barrett JS, Gearry RB, Muir JG, Irving PM, Rose R, Rosella O, et al. Dietary poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31(8):874–82.
  19. Barrett JS, Gibson PR. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals? Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012;5(4):261–8.
  20. Murray K, Wilkinson-Smith V, Hoad C, Costigan C, Cox E, Lam C, et al. Differential Effects of FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-Saccharides and Polyols) on Small and Large Intestinal Contents in Healthy Subjects Shown by MRI. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2014 Jan;109(1):110–9.
  21. Ong DK, Mitchell SB, Barrett JS, Shepherd SJ, Irving PM, Biesiekierski JR, et al. Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia). 2010;25(8):1366–73.
  22. Major G, Pritchard S, Murray K, Alappadan JP, Hoad CL, Marciani L, et al. Colon Hypersensitivity to Distension, Rather Than Excessive Gas Production, Produces Carbohydrate-Related Symptoms in Individuals With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2017 Jan 1;152(1):124-133.e2.
  23. Suchy FJ. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Jun 15;152(12):792.
  24. Jianqin S, Leiming X, Lu X, Yelland GW, Ni J, Clarke AJ. Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk. Nutr J. 2015 Dec 2;15(1):35.
  25. Ho S, Woodford K, Kukuljan S, Pal S. Comparative effects of A1 versus A2 beta-casein on gastrointestinal measures: a blinded randomised cross-over pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep 2;68(9):994–1000.
  26. Milan AM, Shrestha A, Karlström HJ, Martinsson JA, Nilsson NJ, Perry JK, et al. Comparison of the impact of bovine milk β-casein variants on digestive comfort in females self-reporting dairy intolerance: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Jan 1;111(1):149–60.
  27. Ramakrishnan M, Eaton TK, Sermet OM, Savaiano DA. Milk Containing A2 β-Casein ONLY, as a Single Meal, Causes Fewer Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance than Milk Containing A1 and A2 β-Caseins in Subjects with Lactose Maldigestion and Intolerance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 17;12(12):3855.
  28. Mullin GE, Belkoff SM, Box R. Survey to Determine Why People Drink Raw Milk. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014 Nov 1;3(6):19–24.
  29. Mummah S, Oelrich B, Hope J, Vu Q, Gardner CD. Effect of Raw Milk on Lactose Intolerance: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. The Annals of Family Medicine. 2014 Mar 1;12(2):134–41.
  30. de Klerk JN, Robinson PA. Drivers and hazards of consumption of unpasteurised bovine milk and milk products in high-income countries. PeerJ. 2022 May 16;10:e13426.
  31. Lucey JA. Raw Milk Consumption. Nutr Today. 2015 Jul;50(4):189–93.
  32. Skypala IJ, Williams M, Reeves L, Meyer R, Venter C. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso‐active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015 Jan 13;5(1):34.
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  35. Tuck CJ, Biesiekierski JR, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Pohl D. Food Intolerances. Nutrients. 2019 Jul 22;11(7):1684.
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